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Introduction
The probation services play an important role in the rehabilitation of offenders.  They are a service that is charged with the responsibility of addressing an individual’s tendency towards criminal activities.  This brief article will assess the mechanisms that the probation service has in place to achieve this objective.  A brief history of the probation service will start this discussion.  Following from this the aims and objectives of the probation service will be examined as this will allow the reader the opportunity of familiarising themselves with the ethos of the probation service.
The mechanisms that are in place within the probation service will be considered next, with the discussion focal point centred on the various schemes that are in place to curtail individual’s criminal tendencies.  What happens if an individual is not happy with the service they receive from the probation service?  The procedures that are in place for aggrieved offenders will be considered next.  Finally, a brief look at the future of the probation service will be offered.  The main aim of this article is to inform the reader of what the probation service is, and what is has to offer.
History of the Probation Service
The concept of probation, from the Latin word probatio, has developed from the practice of judicial reprieve.  It originally entailed a temporary reprieve in English Common Law from the execution of a sentence to allow the defendant to appeal to the Crown for a pardon. The first known example of what might be termed as a probationary period,  was seen to take place in the United States when John Augustus, a Boston  boot maker, convinced a judge in the Boston Police Court in 1841 that he could help a convicted offender, a "drunkard," and rehabilitate him by the time of sentencing. This is an  dre dre solo beats example of probation in its infancy, as it is now a universally recognised mechanism to curtail re-offending.  In the United Kingdom, a body was formulated in 2001 called the National Probation Service.  This service was charged with the responsibility of overseeing the reintegration of offenders back into society.  The aims and objectives of this service will now be considered.
Aims and Objectives of the National Probation Service
The aims and objectives of the National Probation Service consist of: Protecting the public; reducing re-offending; the proper punishment of offenders in the community; ensuring offenders' awareness of the effects of crime on the victims of crime and the public; and, the rehabilitation of offenders.  Once an individual starts their probationary period, they will be placed under a supervision officer provided by the National Probation Service.  There are certain obligations that are imposed on an individual who is under probation.  These obligations consist of staying  beats br dr dre solo out of trouble and telling your supervisor immediately, if you change your address or phone number.
You must also be on time for appointments that you are given and let staff visit you at home. You must also adhere to any extra requirements ordered  how good are beats by dre by the court and keep to any extra requirements on your licence if you have been released from prison. You will also be expected to fully participate in anything else your supervising officer asks you to do. This may be taking part in a one-to-one or group work programme.  These obligations can seem somewhat onerous and one can imagine many instances were all of these requirements are not fully adhered to.
If a probation officer feels that an individual is not fully committed to their period of probation, they may send the individual back  beats by dre solo wireless review to court or, if the person is on licence, send them back to jail. With the penalties being as severe as they are for not fully cooperating with the probation, there needs to be some form of mechanism that is adequate enough to give an individual an arena to voice their concerns if they feel that they have been ill-treated.  The forms of redress will be examined next.
Avenues to Complain Against the Probation Service
There maybe various circumstances that an individual may not be happy with during their probationary period.  You may have not been seen regularly and on time or you may feel that you have not been treated fairly and with respect.  Maybe it is just that you had a request for dispensation to attend a special event.  All of these can alienate an individual from the service and possibly push towards the road to re-offending.  The National Probation Service has, in place, a procedure were aggrieved individuals can seek agreement over possible mix-ups concerning their probation period.
It is recommended that an informal approach is made to a member of staff in order to sort it out unofficially. If this doesn't resolve the matter, then the individual can make a formal complaint and, if necessary, appeal against any decision taken. If there is still no satisfaction, then an application can be made to the Prisons and Probation Ombudsman to carry out an independent investigation.  With the high levels of re-offending still in existence, however, there has been talk of totally modernising the National Probation Service.
The Future of the Probation Service
There is a general consensus that the probation service is in need of modernising.  This has resulted in a paper being published called Restructuring Probation to Reduce re-offending. It proposes:” to give to the Secretary of State the statutory duty to make arrangements with others to provide probation services; and to create new bodies, replacing local probation boards, with who he may contract.” The paper proposes replacing probation boards with probation trusts made up of business people, no longer including a judge, and accepts that contestability could mean a trust ceasing to exist.  beats by dre white with diamonds The National Association of Probation Officers is making it clear that these proposals will de-professionalise, deskill and destabilise our Service. We will fight these proposals in Parliament and if necessary we must be ready to take industrial action.
Conclusion
This article is not a warts and all expose on the probation, but merely a descriptive account of the role of the probation service within the criminal justice system within the United Kingdom.  Its main objective is to inform the reader of what the probation  review beats by dre solo service can offer and where a potential complainant may turn if they feel aggrieved by a decision made regarding their probation period.
Thomas GallagherLLb Liverpool John Moores UniversityLLM Liverpool University
If you would like to find more information regarding the probation service then please visit /probation/ and /probation/probationresult.php
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